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WIC-Related Studies and Reports

Learn more about the impact WIC has on its participants, common broad nutritional risks, breastfeeding rates and more with these reports. Check out Data and Research for a more in depth collection of USDA studies and reports, where you can search by topic, program, and other filters.

Available Now

WIC Report - Indicators of Diet Quality, Nutrition and Health for Americans by Program Participation Status, 2011–16

This study primarily uses 2011–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data to examine bivariate relationships between reported WIC participation and outcomes including diet quality, indicators of nutrition and health, food consumption patterns, and nutrient intakes among 1- to 4-year-old children. Results are intended to contribute to the evidence base needed to inform future research and, subsequently, WIC policy and practice.

Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020 - 2025

Make Every Bite Count! The new edition of the Dietary Guidelines includes recommendations for all life stages, including, for the first time, infants and toddlers, and pregnant and lactating women. WIC staff can use graphics and consumer resources to help translate the Guidelines into achievable steps for their participants, paving the way to a healthier diet. The Dietary Guidelines provide a framework - not prescriptive details - to "meet people where they are," from personal preferences to cultural foodways, as well as budgetary considerations.

The Dietary Guidelines, which serve as the basis for the WIC food packages, are informed by the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee's Scientific Report. Have questions about the Guidelines? Check out the most popular questions and answers.


WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2 (WIC ITFPS-2) - Fourth Report

Consistent 4-year participation in WIC was associated with better diet quality.

The top reported reasons for continued WIC participation were the education received from WIC, the WIC food package, and the work of WIC personnel.

Read about these and other findings in WIC ITFPS-2, a longitudinal study from which multiple reports have been published. This most recent in the series looks at how children who started out on WIC are living, eating, and growing in the fourth year of life, and how WIC contributes to those outcomes. Other reports from this study include:

WIC Participant and Program Characteristics 2020

Interested in breastfeeding initiation rates by State?

Curious about the demographics of the WIC program, or what the more common nutritional risks are for each WIC participant category?

Check out this latest report that summarizes the demographic characteristics of WIC participants nationwide. It includes information on participant income and health related characteristics and behaviors, estimates breastfeeding initiation rates for WIC infants, and describes WIC members of migrant farm-worker families.


National and State Level Estimates of WIC Eligibility and WIC Program Reach in 2019

Want to know your State agency's estimated coverage rate of those eligible for WIC?

Interested in seeing the number of participants vs. the number of those eligible in your State?

For previous copies of these two reports, search Data and Research on the USDA FNS website.


WIC Food Cost Containment Practices Study

This study examined about 30 voluntary food-specific restrictions and manufacturer rebates (on foods other than infant formula) with the goal of identifying practices that reduce food costs without adversely affecting participant outcomes.

On the Horizon

The WIC Nutrition Assessment and Tailoring Study (WIC NATS) is the first national study to provide a comprehensive account of the WIC nutrition assessment process as it unfolds at sites across the country. The study will:

  • Document how nutrition risk assessments are conducted;
  • Examine how the information gathered during the assessment is used to tailor Program benefits; and
  • Identify promising practices in the nutrition assessment process that are associated with participant and staff satisfaction, improved efficiency, and reduced staff burden
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