Substance Use and Medication Safety

Breastfeeding Health and Wellness Infancy Pregnancy

Education Materials and Information Resources

Though WIC’s role in preventing substance use is limited, staff can play a valuable part in the process by becoming informed about and comfortable with the topic. This page contains links to several resources for information regarding substance use and medication information and safety for pregnant and breastfeeding women and infants, including the WIC brochure, Give Your Baby a Healthy Start: Tips for Pregnant Women and New Mothers, for use with participants, which WIC agencies can download or order for free on the WIC publication ordering page.

Additional information and resources can be found in the Substance Use Prevention: Screening, Education and Referral Resource Guide for Local WIC Agencies.

Alcohol

Drinking and Your Pregnancy Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute on Alcohol  Abuse and Alcoholism
Website and print version for use with participants that contains a Q&A and resources for help and additional information.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC
Free materials, facts, data and statistics, articles, education and training, and a variety of other resources. This site is also available in Spanish.

Addressing FASDs Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SAMHSA
Downloadable PDF of guidelines that review screening tools for alcohol use and interventions for women who are pregnant and of childbearing age to prevent fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. SAMHSA publications are also available in Spanish.
 

Tobacco and Marijuana

Tobacco Use and Pregnancy Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC
Covers smoking (including e-cigarettes) during pregnancy, second-hand smoke, and benefits of quitting, as well as resources for quitting.

Smokefree.gov Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute
Provides resources such as tools and tips, information, and articles for those who want to quit, who recently quit, and who want to maintain smoke-free. This site is also available in Spanish and provides a section dedicated to women and pregnant women.

Marijuana and Public Health Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC
Provides general information on the health effects of marijuana use, FAQs, facts, and fact sheets. This site is also available in Spanish.

What You Need to Know About Marijuana Use and Pregnancy Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, CDC
Fact sheet that covers marijuana use during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

Marijuana Safety for Children and Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Source: Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
A Retail Marijuana Education Team was formed in response to the legalization of Marijuana in Colorado and created fact sheets for families as well as pregnant and breastfeeding women.

Other Substances

Transfer of Drugs and Therapeutics Into Human Breast Milk: An Update on Selected Topics Source: American Academy of Pediatrics
Report that discusses several topics of interest surrounding lactation and the use of substances, including galactogogues and herbal products.

Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Source: American Academy of Pediatrics
Article that reviews historical background, incidence and other topics, including breastfeeding.

Opioid Use and Opioid Use Disorder in Pregnancy Source: American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Committee Opinion that covers the effects of opioid use on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes.
 

Medications

Medicine and Pregnancy Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, FDA
Provides a number of tips under four topic areas, Ask Questions, Read the Label, Be Smart Online, and Report Problems, that pregnant women can use to talk to their healthcare provider about how prescription and over-the-counter medicines might affect them and their baby. These tips can be printed as a handout in English, Spanish, Chinese, French, and French Creole.

Medication Safety: Advice for New Moms Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, FDA
Medication safety advice for mom and the infant for both prescription and over the counter medicines. This site is also available in Spanish.

Use of Codeine and Tramadol in Breastfeeding Women Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, FDA
Q&As on medication containing codeine and tramadol, FDA's strengthened warning to use in breastfeeding women, advice for breastfeeding women, and other important information.

FDA Evaluating Study Examining Use of Oral Fluconazole (Diflucan) in Pregnancy Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, FDA
FDA notice regarding their evaluating the results of a Danish study that conclude there is a possible increased risk of miscarriage with the use of oral fluconazole (Diflucan) for yeast infections.

LactMed Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH, US National Library of Medicine
Searchable database containing information on drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed; includes information on the levels of such substances in breast milk and infant blood, and the possible adverse effects in the nursing infant.